Marble Products In Building Construction

Marble has been used since ancient times in sculpture and as a decorative construction material. It has been a symbol of beauty in the grand buildings built by emperors. Marble is used in both internal and external applications, and is available in several colors and shapes.

Marble is a kind of lime stone which is available in many colors. White marble has been in use, for construction of buildings since ancient times. The people of Greece and Egypt used this stone for construction of temples. The Taj Mahal in India is also made from the white marble. It is unaffected by heat, cold, rains etc.

Marble Formation
Marble is a metamorphic rock produced from limestone by pressure and heat in the earth crust due to geological processes. The pressures and temperatures essential to produce this stone generally eliminate any fossils that exist in the initial rock. Due to these forces, the texture of limestone is changed. Impurities in the limestone affect the marble mineral composition.

Marble is available in various colors due to the variety of minerals present in the marble like clay, sand, and silt. It is widely utilized as a building material, in monuments and sculptures, and in numerous other applications. Marbles are suitable for internal and external applications. However, due to modern-day environmental pollution, the polish on marble used for external applications may not be durable.

Characteristics Of Marbles
Marble is a stone with a firm crystalline structure and slight porosity. Due to its structure, marble can be polished to improve its shine and is thus a common and attractive stone for building applications. The restricted marble porosity, mainly when refined, makes it less susceptible to water damage. However, calcium carbonate, the main ingredient of marble, is exceedingly susceptible to acidic agents: it rapidly dissolves in some acids. The actual influence of acidic contact will vary with the kind of the acid: chlorides, sulfates, and other chemical compounds respond in different ways with marble. Byproducts are created that possess a wide range of solubility and influence on the durability of marble. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the exact kind of pollutants that cause marble deterioration.

Weather Effects On Marble
The forces of nature may produce a decaying effect on the look and structural reliability of marble. These agents include temperature, snow, rain, wind and atmospheric pollutants. Weathering agents normally act in combination with the other agents to increase the deterioration of marble. Rain water, particularly in combination with the atmospheric gases, may cause dissolution of the marble, generating salt movement within the micro-structure.

Temperature can intensify the deterioration rate, and the patterns of salt relocation within the stone. High temperatures normally multiply the chemical changes. Sudden changes in temperature can cause stresses due to the differential in expansion. Moisture is considered to be one of the foremost causes of the problems that may happen. However other troubles like erosion due to wind and mutilation may also occur.

Physical origins
Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed.

Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay, silt, sand, iron oxides, or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally magnesium-rich limestone or dolomite with silica impurities. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism.

Applications Of Marble
Marble has numerous applications for structural and decorative purposes. It is utilized for outdoor sculpture, external walls, floor covering, decoration, stairs, and pavements. The technique of stone usage can influence the exposure severity. Marble is considered the stone for the emperors and gods. The majority of prehistoric monuments were made of marble. Marble has decorated the corridors of cathedrals and historical places. Marble tiles cover the floors of the affluent and also beautifies the baths of more moderate homeowners. These tiles are either polished or honed. Polished tiles provide a stylish appearance, though are extremely slippery when wet. Honed tiles offer more grip and are considered safe. Use of several treatments can slow the marble deterioration process. Marble is vulnerable to etching and staining by water and chemicals, for which appropriate advanced sealants have been developed to reduce this risk considerably.

Construction marble
Construction marble is a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish. More generally in construction, specifically the dimension stone trade, the term "marble" is used for any crystalline calcitic rock (and some non-calcitic rocks) useful as building stone. For example, Tennessee marble is really a dense granular fossiliferous gray to pink to maroon Ordovician limestone, that geologists call the Holston Formation.

Ashgabat, the capital city of Turkmenistan, was recorded in the 2013 Guinness Book of Records as having the world's highest concentration of white marble buildings.


Physical Properties and Uses of Marble
Marble occurs in large deposits that can be hundreds of feet thick and geographically extensive. This allows it to be economically mined on a large scale, with some mines and quarries producing millions of tons per year.

Most marble is made into either crushed stone or dimension stone. Crushed stone is used as an aggregate in highways, railroad beds, building foundations, and other types of construction. Dimension stone is produced by sawing marble into pieces of specific dimensions. These are used in monuments, buildings, sculptures, paving and other projects. We have an article about "the uses of marble" that includes photos and descriptions of marble in many types of uses.



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